“Leading Journal in Korean Studies since 1968”
http://koreaobserver.or.kr pISSN 0023-3919 eISSN 2586-3053
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  Instruction to Authors

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General Policy

KOREA OBSERVER is an academic journal published quarterly (March 30, June 30, September 30, and December 30) by the Institute of Korean Studies, established in 1968 by Professor Myong-Whai Kim. The journal strives to spread and share knowledge in Korean Studies around the globe.

KOREA OBSERVER seeks to publish leading scholarly research on Korea including politics, economics, history, society, geography, environment, and culture. Those wishing to contribute may submit an original work, and the manuscript submitted to KOREA OBSERVER should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts passed the initial screening will be peer-reviewed anonymously by at least two scholars.


Submission of Manuscript

Author(s) may submit their manuscript via E-Submission System of KOREA OBSERVER (http://kyobo036.medone.co.kr). Author(s) must upload two separate MS WORD (.docx) files.



Submitted works should not exceed 10,000 words including texts, footnotes, and references, and must be accompanied by an abstract up to 150 words and 3 to 5 keywords. Please use 11pt Times New Roman.

A title page should include the title of the manuscript and author’s biographical sketch (i.e., name, academic background, present position, recent publications, mailing and e-mail addresses, etc.). Author(s) MUST NOT include any other biographical sketch other than the title page.

Format of Manuscript

We ONLY accept MS WORD (.docx) files. Text should be double-spaced. The section headings of the text should be designated by Roman numerals (I, II, III…). Footnotes, if necessary, should be placed at the bottom of the page. Tables and figures should be numbered consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals.

In-Text Citations

Use the Author-Date system in the following format: (Author Year, Pages). Note that there is no comma between the author and the publication year. Separate mass citations with a semicolon. Do not redact your self-citations. Do not use footnotes for simple citations.

“In the book by Ahlquist and Levi (2013), …” or at the end of a sentence (Mansbridge 1986). Citations may appear at the end of each (in-)dependent clause.


References, appended to the end of the manuscript, should list all cited sources in alphabetical order:
Author-Date system of the 16th Edition of the Chicago Manual of Style
Please refer to Chicago-Style Citation Quick Guide.
Please be sure to change to Author-Date
Please provide authors first and last names, rather than last name and first initial All listed references must be cited in the text, and vice versa. Do not include non-cited material in references.
Please include a link to all unpublished work, i.e. working papers, conference papers, etc.
Publication information for each reference must be complete and correct at time of submission.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)
Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life.
New York: Simon & Schuster.
Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.
In-text citations
(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)
(Smith 2016, 315–160)

Chapter or other part of an edited book
In the reference list, include the page range for the chapter or part. In the text, cite specific pages.
Reference list entry

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.
In-text citation
(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.
Reference list entry
D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.
In-text citation
(D’Agata 2016, 177–78)


Translated book
Reference list entry
Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016. In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
In-text citation
(Lahiri 2016, 146)

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit).
Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)
Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.
Borel, Brooke. 2016. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ProQuest Ebrary.
Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Melville, Herman. 1851. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

In-text citations
(Austen 2007, chap. 3)
(Borel 2016, 92)
(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)
(Melville 1851, 627)


Journal article
In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article. In the text, cite specific page numbers. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://dx.doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.
Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)
Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11 (1) (Spring): 1–34. https://dx.doi.org/10.1086/690235.
LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.
Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111 (2) (April): 165–76.
In-text citations
(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)
(LaSalle 2017, 95)
(Satterfield 2016, 170)
Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; in the text, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.

Reference list entry
Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189 (5) (May): 463–73.
In-text citation
(Bay et al. 2017, 465)

News or magazine article
Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. In the reference list, it can be helpful to repeat the year with sources that are cited also by month and day. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.
Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)
Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.New York Times, March 8, 2017.
Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.
Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.
Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.
In-text citation

(Manjoo 2017)

(Mead 2017, 43)
(Pai 2017)
(Pegoraro 2007)
Readers’ comments are cited in the text but omitted from a reference list.
In-text citation
(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)

Book review
Reference list entry
Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.
In-text citation
(Kakutani 2016)


Reference list entry
Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.
In-text citation
(Stamper 2017)


Thesis or dissertation
Reference list entry
Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.
In-text citation
(Rutz 2013, 99–100)


Website content
It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.
Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51..
Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.
In-text citations
(Bouman 2016)
(Google 2017)
(Yale University n.d.)


Social media content
Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.


Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).
Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)
Chicago Manual of Style. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.
Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.
In-text citations

(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

(Souza 2016)
(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)


Personal communication
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.
In-text citation
(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)


Code of Ethics
Plagiarism is not tolerated under any circumstance. Self-plagiarism also a type of plagiarism. The author should not resubmit a manuscript to a journal when it has already been published elsewhere. This ban applies to the manuscript accepted for publication or under review by another journal. The author should bear responsibility for his own research and contributions and should receive due credits for them. The author should accurately attribute the sources of materials he uses.
Copyright to be published in Korea Observer resides with the Institute of Korean Studies. It is assumed that the author(s) of the article grant and transfer exclusively to the publisher all rights of the article. All authors must read and agree to the conditions outlined in the form, and must sign the form or agree that the corresponding author can sign on their behalf. Articles cannot be published until a signed form has been received.


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